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Dont le dans la catégorieENGLISH - ETYMOLOGY 1
Informations sur le sujet

English - Etymology 1

From Middle French _affecter_, French _affecter_, and its source, the participle stem of Latin _afficere_ (“to act upon, influence, affect, attack with disease”), from _ad-_ + _facere_ (“to make, do”). PRONUNCIATION * enPR: əfĕkt', IPA(key): /əˈfɛkt/ * Rhymes: -ɛkt VERB AFFECT (_third-person singular simple present_ AFFECTS, _present participle_ AFFECTING, _simple past and past participle_ AFFECTED) * (transitive) To influence or alter. _The experience AFFECTED me deeply._ _The heat of the sunlight AFFECTED the speed of the chemical reaction._ * Macaulay The climate AFFECTED their health and spirits. * (transitive) To move to emotion. _He was deeply AFFECTED by the tragic ending of the play._ * Edmund Burke A consideration of the rationale of our passions seems to me very necessary for all who would AFFECT them upon solid and pure principles. * (transitive) Of an illness or condition, to infect or harm (a part of the body). _Hepatitis AFFECTS the liver._ * (transitive, archaic) To dispose or incline. * Milton men whom they thought best AFFECTED to religion and their country's liberty * (transitive, archaic) To tend to by affinity or disposition. * Newton The drops of every fluid AFFECT a round figure. * (transitive, archaic) To assign; to appoint. * Thackeray One of the domestics was AFFECTED to his special service. USAGE NOTES _Affect_ and _effect_ are sometimes confused. _Affect_ conveys influence over something that already exists, but _effect_ indicates the manifestation of new or original ideas or entities: * “...new policies have EFFECTED major changes in government.” * “...new policies have AFFECTED major changes in government.” The former indicates that major changes were made as a result of new policies, while the latter indicates that before new policies, major changes were in place, and that the new policies had some influence over these existing changes. The verbal noun uses of _affect_ are distinguished from the verbal noun uses of _effect_ more clearly than the regular verb forms. An _affect_ is something that acts or acted upon something else. However, an _effect_ is the result of an action (by something else). SYNONYMS * (influence or alter): alter, change, have an effect on, have an impact on, influence * (move to emotion): move, touch * (infect): attack DERIVED TERMS * affectingly TRANSLATIONS

From Middle French affecter, French affecter, and its source, the participle stem of Latin afficere (to act upon, influence, affect, attack with disease), from ad- + facere (to make, do).

Pronunciation

  • enPR: əfĕkt', IPA(key): /əˈfɛkt/
  • Rhymes: -ɛkt

Verb

affect (third-person singular simple present affects, present participle affecting, simple past and past participle affected)

  1. (transitive) To influence or alter.
    The experience affected me deeply.
    The heat of the sunlight affected the speed of the chemical reaction.
  2. (transitive) To move to emotion.
    He was deeply affected by the tragic ending of the play.
  3. (transitive) Of an illness or condition, to infect or harm (a part of the body).
    Hepatitis affects the liver.
  4. (transitive, archaic) To dispose or incline.
  5. (transitive, archaic) To tend to by affinity or disposition.
  6. (transitive, archaic) To assign; to appoint.
Usage notes

Affect and effect are sometimes confused. Affect conveys influence over something that already exists, but effect indicates the manifestation of new or original ideas or entities:

The former indicates that major changes were made as a result of new policies, while the latter indicates that before new policies, major changes were in place, and that the new policies had some influence over these existing changes.

The verbal noun uses of affect are distinguished from the verbal noun uses of effect more clearly than the regular verb forms. An affect is something that acts or acted upon something else. However, an effect is the result of an action (by something else).

Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations

Dont le dans la catégorieENGLISH - ETYMOLOGY 2
Informations sur le sujet

English - Etymology 2

From Anglo-Norman _affecter_ (“strive after”), Middle French _affecter_ (“feign”), and their source, Latin _affectāre_ (“to strive after, aim to do, pursue, imitate with dissimulation, feign”), frequentative of _afficere_ (“to act upon, influence”) (see Etymology 1, above). PRONUNCIATION * enPR: əfĕkt', IPA(key): /əˈfɛkt/ * Rhymes: -ɛkt VERB AFFECT (_third-person singular simple present_ AFFECTS, _present participle_ AFFECTING, _simple past and past participle_ AFFECTED) * (obsolete, transitive) To aim for, to try to obtain. [15th-19th c.] * Dryden This proud man AFFECTS imperial sway. * (transitive, now rare) To feel affection for (someone); to like, be fond of. [from 16th c.] * 1596, Edmund Spenser, _The Faerie Queene_, VI.10: From that day forth she gan to him AFFECT, / And daily more her favour to augment […]. * 1621, Robert Burton, _The Anatomy of Melancholy_, I.2.4.vii: A young gentlewoman in Basil was married […] to an ancient man against her will, whom she could not AFFECT; she was continually melancholy, and pined away for grief

From Anglo-Norman affecter (strive after), Middle French affecter (feign), and their source, Latin affectāre (to strive after, aim to do, pursue, imitate with dissimulation, feign), frequentative of afficere (to act upon, influence) (see Etymology 1, above).

Pronunciation

  • enPR: əfĕkt', IPA(key): /əˈfɛkt/
  • Rhymes: -ɛkt

Verb

affect (third-person singular simple present affects, present participle affecting, simple past and past participle affected)

  1. (obsolete, transitive) To aim for, to try to obtain. [15th-19th c.]
  2. (transitive, now rare) To feel affection for (someone); to like, be fond of. [from 16th c.]
Dont le dans la catégorieENGLISH - ETYMOLOGY 3
Informations sur le sujet

English - Etymology 3

Middle English _affect_, from Latin _affectus_, _adfectus_ (“a state of mind or body produced by some (external) influence, especially sympathy or love”), from _afficere_ (“to act upon, influence”) PRONUNCIATION * enPR: ă'fĕkt, IPA(key): /ˈæfɛkt/ NOUN AFFECT (_plural_ AFFECTS) * (obsolete) One's mood or inclination; mental state. [14th-17th c.] * (obsolete) A desire, an appetite. [16th-17th c.] * (psychology) A subjective feeling experienced in response to a thought or other stimulus; mood, emotion, especially as demonstrated in external physical signs. [from 19th c.] * 1999, Joyce Crick, translating Sigmund Freud, _The Interpretation of Dreams_, Oxford 2008, p. 62: if we are afraid of robbers in a dream, the robbers are certainly imaginary, but the fear is real. This draws our attention to the fact that the development of AFFECTS [transl. _Affectentwicklung_] in dreams is not amenable to the judgement we make of the rest of the dream-content [...]. * 2004, Jeffrey Greenberg & Thomas A Pyszczynski, _Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology_, p. 407: A third study demonstrated that the effects of self-affirmation on self-regulated performance were not due to positive AFFECT. USAGE NOTES _Affect_ and _effect_ can both be used as nouns or verbs, but when used as a noun the word _affect_ is limited to the above psychology uses and the definitions for _effect_ are much more common. See also the usage notes as a verb above. DERIVED TERMS * affect display * flat affect * labile affect RELATED TERMS * affecter * affective * affection * affectionate TRANSLATIONS

Middle English affect, from Latin affectus, adfectus (a state of mind or body produced by some (external) influence, especially sympathy or love), from afficere (to act upon, influence)

Pronunciation

  • enPR: ă'fĕkt, IPA(key): /ˈæfɛkt/

Noun

affect (plural affects)

  1. (obsolete) One's mood or inclination; mental state. [14th-17th c.]
  2. (obsolete) A desire, an appetite. [16th-17th c.]
  3. (psychology) A subjective feeling experienced in response to a thought or other stimulus; mood, emotion, especially as demonstrated in external physical signs. [from 19th c.]
Usage notes

Affect and effect can both be used as nouns or verbs, but when used as a noun the word affect is limited to the above psychology uses and the definitions for effect are much more common. See also the usage notes as a verb above.

Derived terms
Related terms
Translations

Dont le dans la catégorieENGLISH - REFERENCES
Informations sur le sujet

English - References

* affect in _Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary_, G. & C. Merriam, 1913 * “affect” in Douglas Harper, _Online Etymology Dictionary_ (2001).


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